In 2017, al-Nusra Front had 104 incidents, Liwa al-Haqq had 3 incidents, and HTS had 21 incidents directly attributed to them. Senegal has combated this threat by contributing troops to the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), which may make Senegal or its interests targets for Mali-based terrorist groups. Uzbekistan is currently evaluating the adoption of the U.S. [287], Between the nave to the west and the apse to the east is the crossing, designed by Rafael Guastavino. The laws were under formal review for potential repeal or revision to remove “elements of oppression.” However, a November 27 riot at a Hindu temple in Selangor sparked concern among officials about the potential threat to national security, public order, and race relations, if the laws were no longer available. Spain cooperated with regional partners on counterterrorism investigations and arrests. GTR also worked with personnel from Libyan, Egyptian, and other countries’ nuclear facilities to promote the adoption of security measures to prevent employees from diverting nuclear material and technology. Between December 26 and 29, ISIS-WA conducted a series of attacks against the army barracks and navy base in Baga, Borno State. It also shared a list of banned exchange houses and money transfer companies with regional regulators and took judicial action against more than a dozen individuals and companies suspected of illicit financial activity. As a counterterrorism partner of the United States, Turkey continued to receive U.S. assistance to address the terrorist threat posed by the PKK in 2018. Schools received specialized educational resources according to their specific needs. All three survived the attack. In addition, the EU Commission continued work on its Action Plan to Support the Protection of Public Spaces, which aims to enhance the capacity of member states to protect and reduce the vulnerability of soft targets, such as malls, restaurants, hotels, and other public spaces, against terrorist attacks. Four U.S. citizens were killed in the attack: Glen Doherty, Sean Smith, Tyrone Woods, and the U.S. Other prominent targeted groups included Military Militias and Paramilitary groups (15 percent), and Government-Law Enforcement (15 percent). Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Nothing in this report should be construed as a determination that individuals associated with particular incidents are guilty of terrorism or any other criminal offense. USAID also provided reading kits to 3,986 schools, trained 11,277 teachers and school directors on balanced literacy, and instructed 324 pedagogical counselors on monitoring and supporting teachers. The Department of State’s counterterrorism rewards program, Rewards for Justice (RFJ), was established by the 1984 Act to Combat International Terrorism, Public Law 98-533 (codified at 22 U.S.C. The OIC’s International Islamic Fiqh Academy issues perspectives on violent extremism in Arabic. Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: Bahrain made no significant changes to its counterterrorism legal framework or border security procedures in 2018. In July 2018, AQIM claimed responsibility for a vehicle suicide attack on an army patrol in Gao that killed four civilians and wounded 31 others, including four French soldiers. Overview: Turkey continued its efforts to defeat terrorist organizations both inside and outside its borders, including the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) and ISIS. The SRF referred several cases of money laundering to law enforcement authorities. Slow government formation after the October 2018 elections continues to delay the measure’s adoption. The United States assisted Iraqi counterterrorism efforts by providing training, equipment, and other assistance to such law enforcement organization. KIB has played a significant role in the violence in northwestern Syria, fighting alongside groups including al-Nusrah Front. One of the suspects allegedly held a high-profile role in the “information structure” of ISIS, distributing ISIS propaganda via instant messaging. At year’s end, one suspect had been released pending the conclusion of the investigation; the others remained in custody. The guidelines clarified that wearing clothes or symbols that advocate terrorism or extremism, and individuals who write, publish, broadcast, or advocate terrorism-related content online are criminally liable. [3][5] The proposed cathedral's elevated location would have been visible from New Jersey, across the Hudson River to the west, as well as from the New York Bay to the south. As the largest troop contributing country to AMISOM, Uganda remained a key partner in regional efforts to neutralize alShabaab. Four individuals were charged, including two with terrorist connections. Description: The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso or SL) was designated as a FTO on October 8, 1997. The PA and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) continued to provide “martyr payments” to the families of Palestinian individuals killed carrying out a terrorist act. In 2014, TTP targeted military and police convoys, bazaars, buses, and schools. The Saudi government continues to pursue full membership in the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) and the country’s mutual evaluation report was reviewed by FATF in June. South Africa is a member of the Eastern and Southern Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), a FATF-style regional body. International and Regional Cooperation: Trinidad and Tobago is a member of the Organization of American States/Inter-American Committee against Terrorism, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), and the lead country with responsibility for crime and security. Seventy-five percent of all suicide attacks occurred in five countries — Afghanistan, Iraq, Nigeria, Somali, and Pakistan. The Afghan government and the Afghan Taliban took steps towards a political settlement in 2018. Councilman Bill Perkins proposed that the protective status should also be extended to the cathedral's grounds in order to control development there. [3] Subsequently, the west wing was used by the Diocese offices, and the east wing by Cathedral offices until 1949. In April 2016, a Hamas member carried out a suicide attack on a bus in Jerusalem, killing 20. The group raises funds primarily in Europe. Countering the Financing of Terrorism: France is a member of the FATF and its FIU, Tracfin, is a member of the Egmont Group. Sri Lanka strengthened its counterterrorism efforts by improving its counterterrorism legislation, enhancing border security, implementing AML/CFT measures, and collaborating with numerous international organizations and donor countries, including the United States. Overview: In 2018, Australia strengthened counterterrorism laws, investigated and disrupted suspected terrorist plots, and maintained high levels of cooperation with the United States and other international partners. The Kyrgyz government restricts public information on national security issues, making it difficult to assess the efficacy of its counterterrorism operations and the true extent of the threat. Parliament passed the Public Order and Safety (Special Powers) Act in March, granting the government new authority to shut down communications networks and ban the public from taking photos and videos of a “serious incident.”. While French officials and many independent observers view it as an effective deterrent, Operation Sentinelle complicates resource allocation challenges faced by a French military active in several overseas theaters. The data on terrorist incidents collected and stored in GTTAC are not static. On August 3, prison authorities transferred Koufontinas from Greece’s highest-security prison to an agricultural prison where inmates live in open conditions and participate in farm work resulting in a net reduction of their sentences. Description: The Salafist Group for Call and Combat (GSPC) was designated as a FTO on March 27, 2002. Burkina Faso continued to screen arriving and departing travelers at international airports and other points of entry using PISCES. For instance, in February, authorities in Trinidad and Tobago disrupted an ISIS-inspired plot to attack the country’s Carnival celebrations. Iraq has identified improving interagency cooperation as a priority for its security sector reform program. Terrorist Incidents: On August 20, a 29-year-old man of Algerian origin brandished a knife in a police station in Cornellàde Llobregat, a town near Barcelona, reportedly shouting “Allahu akbar” before being fatally shot by a police officer. International and Regional Cooperation: Senior U.S. government officials visited Turkmenistan in October and December to discuss issues related to regional security, combating terrorism, and border security. Since 2001, at least 70 individuals have been charged under “fundraising”-related sections of the Terrorism Act 2000, and of those, at least 32 individuals were convicted. Tunisia is currently working on a strategy for the return, trial, and incarceration of captured Tunisian FTFs from battlefields in Iraq, Libya, and Syria. Greece also experienced a number of small-scale attacks conducted primarily by domestic anarchists often acting in solidarity with incarcerated terrorists, protesting what they view as corrupt acts by government or private individuals, or opposing foreign policy decisions. [66] The Training School for Deaconesses was completed in 1909, independently of the plan. 2018 Terrorist Incidents: Norway reported no terrorist incidents in 2018. USAID procured 100 buses and began delivery to 100 public schools. Countering the Financing of Terrorism: Trinidad and Tobago is a member of the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force (CFATF), a FATF-style regional body. Even as ISIS lost almost all its physical territory, the group proved its ability to adapt, especially through its efforts to inspire or direct followers online. The Government of Morocco created an office dedicated to inclusive education as a result of this program. In 1999, part of the group publicly renounced violence. Additionally, sniper attacks injured IDF forces and resulted in the death of at least one IDF soldier. The attacks varied in intensity and scale, but generally included the use of firearms, edged weapons (e.g. In August 2015, IJU pledged allegiance to the then newly appointed Taliban leader Mullah Mansour. Countering Violent Extremism: In March, Lebanon adopted its National Strategy for Preventing Violent Extremism. Criminal activities included smuggling oil, looting and selling antiquities and other goods, as well as extortion, human trafficking, and kidnapping-for-ransom. [9], In 2003, the exterior of the cathedral was again considered for landmark status; the interior was ineligible because the commission was legally unable to recognize religious buildings' interiors as landmarks. Greece’s national identification card remained extremely vulnerable to alteration and photo substitution; it has not incorporated security features, such as a digitized photo and biometrics. The Criminal Police Directorate’s Service for Combating Terrorism and Extremism (TES) works on terrorism detection, deterrence, and prevention. Radio Free Asia’s BenarNews is an RFA-affiliated news portal for Muslim populations in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand, who are exposed to terrorist narratives. The service has FM programming on USAGM-owned transmitters in Abidjan, Bamako, Bangui, Brazzaville, Bukavu, Dakar, Gao, Goma, Lubumbashi, Matadi, Ndjamena, Niamey, Ouagadougou, Pointe Noire, and Timbuktu. Niger’s law enforcement capacity benefited from U.S.-provided assistance, including the use of PISCES and through the Department of State Antiterrorism Assistance program. Two major incidents of 2018 in Pakistan are described below: Tehrik-e-Taliban was the main perpetrator of incidents in Pakistan in 2018, responsible for 39 incidents (13 percent). Their cases remained pending at year’s end. In April, the Law on the Prevention of Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism went into effect, which harmonizes Serbia’s regime with international requirements and standards. In February, operatives reportedly affiliated with JeM attacked an Indian army camp at Sunjuwan, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, killing seven. On January 30, 2017, Pakistan placed Saeed under house arrest; however, he was released in November 2017 after a Lahore High Court judicial body rejected a government request to renew his detention. Funding and External Aid: ISIS-WA receives funding from local sources, the capture of military supplies, taxes, and kidnapping-for-ransom payments. In May 2017, the group’s attack on a bus of pilgrims en route to St. Samuel the Confessor, a Coptic monastery near Minya, killed 29 people. Customs officials under the Ministry of Economy and Finance monitor the flow of goods and enforce customs laws at borders and ports of entry. Within the EU, the Netherlands continued to push for implementation of the EU’s “Road Map to Improve Information Exchange,” first proposed by the Netherlands during its EU Presidency in 2016. However, judicial impediments to the successful prosecution of terrorists and allegations of extrajudicial killings by security forces during counterterrorism raids have inhibited broader counterterrorism successes. Meanwhile, regional terrorist groups, such as the ELN, were active in the Hemisphere, including in Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru. [136] During this duration, work was concentrated mainly on the western facade. Countering Violent Extremism: Tajikistan continued to focus on implementation of the 2016 national CVE strategy. ETA has not launched any attacks since it announced a “definitive cessation of armed activity” in October 2011. [234][239] These piers divide the nave into five aisles running west to east, with the center aisle located on the same axis as 112th Street. Aka Islamic Jihad Group; Islomiy Jihod Ittihodi; al-Djihad al-Islami; Dzhamaat Modzhakhedov; Islamic Jihad Group of Uzbekistan; Jamiat al-Jihad al-Islami; Jamiyat; The Jamaat Mojahedin; The Kazakh Jama’at; The Libyan Society. [388], The Cathedral of St. John the Divine complex had been considered for designation as an official landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1966. North Macedonia’s authorities assessed that ISIS members and sympathizers maintained a presence in North Macedonia. In 2018, the GCTF co-chairs, Morocco and the Netherlands, issued a report on recommendations for the UN and GCTF to increase cooperation and partnership in both GCTF and UN activities. International and Regional Cooperation: Turkey is a member of the UN, NATO, the Committee of Experts on Terrorism of the Council of Europe, and the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS and co-chairs, with Kuwait and the Netherlands, the Defeat-ISIS Coalition FTF Working Group. In 2016, India and the United States signed an arrangement to exchange terrorism screening information, and the Indian Multi-Agency Centre (MAC) continued work on implementation. The Department of State also launched a battlefield evidence initiative with the Departments of Defense and Justice, to enable the United States and partner nations to use captured enemy material more effectively in criminal prosecutions and other civilian applications. [301] It is a ​ .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap} 1⁄2-story H-shaped building with a brick facade, a base of Indiana limestone, and gable roofs above the pavilions on the western end. In 2018, terrorists used under-governed areas throughout Somalia as safe havens to plan, conduct, and facilitate terrorist operations, including mass-casualty bombings in major urban areas. In 2018, NCTC continued to cooperate with U.S. government law enforcement agencies, which have provided support to improve Tanzania’s interagency coordination and cooperation around planning for and responding to crises. It was established in 1987 by leader Shoko Asahara and gained legal status in Japan as a religious entity in 1989. Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: There were no changes to Mexico’s counterterrorism legislation or investigative procedures, other than those described under the terrorist financing section. Nine percent of the incidents in 2018, however, resulted in more than 10 fatalities. Local, emirate-level police forces, especially Abu Dhabi Police and Dubai Police, were frequently the first responders in such cases and often provided technical assistance to SSD and DSS, respectively. Two of the proposed amendments, Articles 107 and 108, have prompted criticism by lawyers who argue that attorney-client confidentiality would be threatened by regulations requiring lawyers to report clients suspected of terrorist activities. ANF used its Salvation Government in parts of Syria’s Idlib province to exert control and offer governance services. Table 3.1. Human Rights Watch claimed separatist insurgents were responsible for the attacks, but there was no claim of responsibility. Its FIU, known as the Financial Intelligence Processing Unit, is a member of the Egmont Group, the international body of FIUs that engage in secure information-sharing to combat money laundering and terrorist financing. On November 20, 2017, the Secretary of State designated the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) as a State Sponsor of Terrorism. The Department of State amended the GSPC designation on February 20, 2008, after the GSPC officially joined with al-Qa’ida (AQ) in September 2006 and became al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). Overview: Colombia experienced a modest increase in terrorist activity, largely because of persistent security challenges in areas vacated by the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) as part of the November 2016 peace accord. The Government of Indonesia is building a new super-maximum prison on Nusa Kambangan Island in Central Java. He was awarded an OBE in the 1990 New Year’s Honours list for services to higher education. The eastern Libya-based Libyan National Army (LNA) announced in June that a military operation had cleared the city of Derna of extremist fighters. The organization was known for cross-border terrorist attacks into Israel using unusual means, such as hot-air balloons and motorized hang gliders. [290], The cathedral close, surrounding the main cathedral, consists of several buildings on a 11.5-acre (4.7 ha) site,[224][291] including the former Leake & Watts asylum building, which predates the land's acquisition by the Episcopal Diocese of New York. Authorities are allowed to withdraw citizenship from an Austrian dual national citizen who voluntarily and actively participates in fighting in a terrorism-related armed conflict. Some assets have been frozen in compliance with UNSCR 1373, but no assets have been frozen pursuant to the UNSC ISIL (Da’esh) and al-Qa’ida sanctions regime. Having admitted her intention in court to “trigger the West” after a failed attempt to travel and fight in Syria, she faces charges of engaging in a terrorist act and attempted murder. In early 2017, a U.S. Navy SEAL was killed in a raid against AQAP leaders in Yemen. Djiboutian law enforcement also continued to extend vehicle searches throughout the capital in an effort coordinated through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. OAS/CICTE, which has 34 member states and 70 observers, made strides in 2018 across its focus areas: cybersecurity, border management, preventing the financing of terrorism, preventing the proliferation of WMD, preventing violent extremism, and addressing the FTF phenomenon. In July, the Council of Europe’s Committee for the Prevention of Torture reported that torture and other forms of physical mistreatment by police and other law enforcement agencies, corruption in the entire law enforcement system, and impunity remained systemic and endemic. Oman continued to participate in the Department of State’s Antiterrorism Assistance (ATA) program in 2018, further developing both hard and soft skills related to counterterrorism operations and investigations. Azerbaijan used terrorist and criminal watchlists and biographic/biometric screening at ports of entry. In addition, AMB claimed responsibility for a suicide car bombing at a military camp in Mali that killed more than 47 people and injured at least 115 in January 2017. Overall, about 38 percent of all incidents reported in 2018 were not attributed to any type of facility by the open sources. A subsequent landmark designation was precluded in 1979 for a similar reason. Strength: ANF influence and capability is believed to have shrunk in 2018, but the group still has an estimated 12,000 members. From 2015 into 2016, AQAP consolidated its control over Mukalla and expanded its reach through large portions of Yemen’s south. In September 2012, the group lost control of Kismayo, a vital port it used to obtain supplies and funding through taxes. Iraq Examples of U.S. multilateral engagement are described below. Overview: Italy collaborated closely with the United States, the EU, and the UN in its international counterterrorism efforts. Notable terrorist attacks in 2018 included the following: Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security:  In August, President al-Sisi ratified a law combating use of the internet by “extremist” and terrorist organizations to carry out attacks. Morocco is an active participant in the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS. On July 13, the Attorney General of Argentina took a significant step in advancing Argentina’s ability to identify, investigate, thwart, and prosecute terrorism by issuing a resolution to create a Counter-Terrorism Secretariat within the Argentine Federal Prosecutor’s Office. The ASG beheaded the two Canadian citizens later that year, and in early 2017, the ASG beheaded a German citizen when ransom deadlines were not met. The PA is currently drafting a strategy to counter these vulnerabilities in advance of its FATF evaluation. Overview:  Mauritania remained a strong U.S. security and regional counterterrorism partner in 2018. Overview: Since defeating groups affiliated with ISIS at the siege of Marawi in 2017, the Philippine government has closely tracked terrorist groups that continue to operate in some areas, particularly in the southern Philippines. Another Uzbek national who was recruited by ISIS and fled a Turkish prison was sentenced to 10 years imprisonment in Uzbekistan. Al-Nusrah Front (ANF) International and Regional Cooperation: The Government of Kosovo worked closely with officials in Albania and North Macedonia to support counterterrorism capacity building and cooperation. Fifty men who had traveled from Austria to Syria and Iraq are presumed dead. The Aqaba Process aimed to maintain international and regional cooperation in the fight against terrorism with a holistic approach and to discuss security challenges in regions around the world that are dealing with terrorism hotspots. Location/Area of Operation: AAD is active in Mali and has also threatened to attack Mauritania and the Ivory Coast. Hong Kong’s Joint Financial Intelligence Unit is a member of the Egmont Group. Targets have included the British military, Northern Ireland security forces, and Loyalist paramilitary groups. The seven archangels are depicted in the north grisaille, while the seven churches of Asia are depicted in the south grisaille. Hamas also manages a broad, mostly Gaza-based, network of Dawa or ministry activities that include charities, schools, clinics, youth camps, fundraising, and political activities. International and Regional Cooperation: In 2018, Maldivian government officials participated in and jointly hosted international and regional workshops on counterterrorism efforts. 2018 Terrorist Incidents: There were no reported terrorist incidents in Senegal in 2018. Tajikistan Countering the Financing of Terrorism: Tunisia is a member of the Middle East and North Africa Financial Action Task Force (MENAFATF) and the country’s FIU, the Tunisian Financial Analysis Committee, is a member of the Egmont Group. In November 2015, AQIM, in cooperation with other terrorist groups, attacked the Radisson Blu Hotel in Bamako, Mali, taking more than 170 hostages, including U.S. citizens. Iraq continued its cooperation with the United States and the international community to counter terrorism and dismantle ISIS’s financial networks. On January 1, the Central Military Commission assumed sole authority to command the PAP. That distinction belongs to. International and Regional Cooperation: Uganda participates in counterterrorism efforts through its membership in the UN, Djibouti-based Intergovernmental Authority on Development, the East African Community, PREACT, the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security: Accompanying CONTEST, the UK government introduced the Counterterrorism and Border Security Bill 2018, which was debated throughout the second half of 2018 and is expected to pass in 2019. Continuity Irish Republican Army (CIRA) For example, CRU-222 responded swiftly during a November 2018 attack in Kabul against a British security contractor compound, securing the compound and killing the attackers. We supported international initiatives, including the Strong Cities Network, which expanded to 125 cities globally and plays a key role in building local resilience to terrorist narratives. International and Regional Cooperation: France is an active participant in the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS and the GCTF. Tunisian security personnel continued to participate in the Department of State’s expanded Antiterrorism Assistance (ATA) program and additional training funded through the State Department’s Counterterrorism Partnership Fund. Location/Area of Operation: The group operates in Japan and Russia. Austria prioritized counterterrorism measures and continued to assess that “Islamist extremism” remains the primary terrorism threat to Austria. This was a significant decrease from 2017, when roughly 3,000 civilians died and 4,600 were injured. In 2018, Kuwait hosted two meetings of the TFTC Executive Committee in Kuwait City. Funding and External Aid: The PFLP-GC receives safe haven and logistical and military support from Syria and financial support from Iran. In March, the Minister of Interior announced the launch of an initiative called “The Spirit of Belonging,” though there has been no public activity under this initiative to date. The Nepalese Army Special Forces units are tasked with counterterrorism efforts and receive training in hostage rescue and in responding to hijackings and similar terrorism incidents. Jama’at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM) In June 2018, six soldiers were wounded by SL sharpshooters at the Nueva Libertad military base. The Saudi government closely monitored passenger manifests for inbound and outbound flights, scrutinized visitors’ travel documents, and collected biometric information. The regulation of mosques to ensure they are “de-politicized” and “de-ideologized” is a key aspect of the Algerian approach. Incidents of domestic terrorism, which focused on voter intimidation or targeted government officials during the late-2017 provincial and federal election season, were less common in 2018. Greece passed legislation permitting collection and analysis of PNR data in implementation of European law and international best practices. 2018 Terrorist Incidents: According to the UN, acts of terrorism, violence, and armed conflict with ISIS killed more than 900 civilians and injured more than 1,600 as of November 30. The Government of Kosovo strengthened its existing counterterrorism provisions and approved a new counterterrorism strategy for 2018-22. Saudi Arabia’s lead counterterrorism agency worked closely with the United States to assess and mitigate potential terrorist threats. Iran’s 2010 execution of Jundallah’s leader in 2010, and the killing and arrest of many Jundallah fighters seriously diminished the group’s capacity to operate. The government adopted a new five-year counterterrorism strategy. ISLAMIC STATE OF IRAQ AND THE LEVANT-LIBYA. Short videos of the April 30 suicide bombings in Kabul generated more than 373,000 video views on Facebook and the coverage garnered nearly 1,000 engagement actions (comments, likes, or shares). [169] Bambridge hired Nicholas G. Fairplay, an English stonemason, as master carver. Iran remained unwilling to bring to justice senior al-Qa’ida (AQ) members residing in the country and has refused to publicly identify members in its custody. [103] The Chapels of the Tongues were devoted to seven of the city's largest immigrant groups when the apse was completed: the southernmost three chapels represent "Latin races" and the northernmost three chapels represent "Germanic races". From 2004 to 2006, RS carried out IED attacks that included a March 2004 attack outside a Citibank office in Athens. In August 2018, USAID launched a program to reach out-of-school children and youth through International Rescue Committee and Save the Children. It is a founding member of the GCTFinspired International Institute for Justice and the Rule of Law (IIJ), and it participated in numerous IIJ trainings and workshops focused on improving criminal justice actors’ capacity to prevent and address terrorism-related crimes. While the primary purpose of the restrictions appears to be reduction of tax evasion, the measures will also make it easier to trace transactions, including those associated with money laundering. Irbid, Karak, and Zarqa are members of the Strong Cities Network and worked to develop capacity in local communities to prevent violence and build community cohesion. Since its inception, Ansaru has targeted civilians, including Westerners, and Nigerian government and security officials. Colombian-U.S. counterterrorism cooperation remained strong. 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