While it is conceivable that one of the drummers played the snare and the other played the bass drum as is traditional in second line parades, a constant tambourine line and other percussion instruments which appear later in the performance suggest an arrangement of one trap drummer and one percussionist. The guitar, horns, and other instruments in the ensemble may regularly accent the One beat as well. New Orleans Second Lines. Traditionally, Second Lines formed organically and without planning whenever a procession took place. So whether it's a soloist, duo, trio or as a big band, our musicians are cued up to go. Through this analysis I hope to have demonstrated a few of the different ways in which features of second line rhythm are utilized in different genres of New Orleans music. New Orleans Second Line by New Birth Brass Band on Apple Music. Check out New Orleans Second Line by Judy Bailey & Jazz Connection on Amazon Music. Perhaps the figures I have provided in each of my analyses, which illustrate the durations of each eighth note as accurately as was possible for my study, could serve as a starting point for a new notational model that indicates duration spatially. Hersch, Charles. We lead our second line parades with the iconic sounds of New Orleans brass band music. The underlying groove of “Hey Pocky A-Way” is heavily dependent upon the different ways in which the snare drum is accented. 1974. 2007. Jazz funerals are a big part of New Orleans culture, and with jazz funerals, comes second lines. Jasmine Green. Stewart, Alexander. 445 Charles E. Young Drive . Due in part to their widespread influence, second line rhythms are a foundational component of many international jazz and popular music styles today. As with most Afro-diasporic musics, the thickening cross rhythms and “schizophrenic” feel of straight against swung beats in New Orleans R&B were held together by a recurring accented beat. Instead, the most prominent rhythm is the tresillo, or the first half of the clave (shown in full in Figure 2). Figure 11 illustrates the waveform of the first two measures of “Hey Pocky A-Way,” with the durations of each eighth note (in centimeters) indicated on a line above the graph: Figure 11. Martinez, Maurice. Michael P. Smith defines the second line as follows: Strictly speaking, the “second line” is the mass of people who follow a traditional African-American parade in New Orleans. This pattern and other 3-3-2 patterns are examples of what African music scholar J.H. 2001. Although Congo Square performances originally featured such native African instruments as the tam tam and the jaw bone, they later grew to incorporate stringed instruments like the African-derived banjo and the European violin. Their own records combined these hometown influences with the staccato funk grooves James Brown had forged out of many of the same sources. Second line drummers vary the standard march beat with syncopations, added notes, and shifting patterns of accents, while revelers joining the parade provide additional layers of rhythm with hand percussion, bottles, sticks, and improvised instruments (Stewart 2003:620). The city’s brass-band craze reached an early peak when several downtown theaters began to host competitive performances between rival groups in the 1830s. We methodically combine factors of the event: theme, style, venue,  performance, target audience and produce a noteworthy lineup of music that compliments the events narrative, and delivers an entertainment experience with elegance and style. The group on the recording consists of Wynton Marsalis on trumpet, Branford Marsalis on saxophone, Delfeayo Marsalis on trombone, Ellis Marsalis, Jr. on piano, Eric Revis on bass, and Jason Marsalis on drums. A further development that had a substantial impact on the city’s black musicians was the creation of the red-light Storyville district in 1887. Discover the history and tradition of the second line in New Orleans with GoNOLA TV! . Over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, black musicians in New Orleans developed a unique rhythmic syntax which underlies Crescent City jazz, rhythm and blues, and funk music. The Second Line is a tradition in parades organized by Social, Aid and Pleasure Clubs (SAPCs) with brass band parades in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. Sublette, Ned. Even the latter requires an artificial accommodation and is impractical to notate throughout a piece. Transcription and durations of eighth notes in measures 15 and 16 of “The 2nd Line.” Transcribed by the author. Second line parades stem from New Orleans’ iconic jazz funerals. “Hey Pocky A-Way.” From, Moore, Stanton. Nketia, J.H. We provide music and entertainment for parties, weddings, celebrations, private and corporate gatherings, banquets, festivals, dance parties, liturgical celebrations, funerals, character and princess parties and so much more. Rooted in the Sunday slave dances of Congo Square, second line parades persist to the present day, making up an essential part of the city’s musical and cultural fabric. Wedding Second-line Frequently Ask Questions / Answers. Individual articles are the copyright of their authors. Lichtenstein, Grace and Laura Danker. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.co.uk. Q:What is a second-line? We are so creative when it comes to planning music for an event, we are confident you'll be pleased. Marsalis Family. The spectrograph of the four-eighth-note run in measure 16, with the length of each note measured visually in centimeters, is as follows: Figure 5. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. Eighth-note beat durations, “Hey Pocky A-Way” measures 1 and 2. I found that, indeed, there was a consistent pattern of alternating long and short eighth notes, though the proportions were not especially consistent. Additive rhythms are also somewhat awkwardly represented using traditional Western notation, with bar lines and note ties sometimes dividing beat cycles in an unnatural fashion. The fifth and seventh eighth notes are the longest in each measure, while the second and sixth are the shortest. For the purposes of my transcription, I averaged the durations of the long and short eighth notes and came up with an average long-to-short ratio of roughly 4:3. produce professional, affordable, quality music and entertainment for events. Through analyses of some of these examples, we can begin to work towards more comprehensive models, both prescriptive and descriptive, of how second line rhythmic principles function across the world’s musics. Line,” the basic pattern is alternating long and short eighth notes. After the clarion call and audience response of the first four bars in my transcription, the basic 12-bar form begins on bar 5. As on “The 2nd Line,” the basic pattern is alternating long and short eighth notes. SIGN IN. In setting a 12-bar blues over a swinging march beat, “The 2nd Line” shares some key features with the “jump blues” style, a small-ensemble predecessor of rhythm and blues music, popular in the 1940s and early 1950s, that combined elements of blues and swing music. We provide music and entertainment for parties, weddings, celebrations, private and corporate gatherings, banquets, festivals, dance parties, liturgical celebrations, funerals, character and princess parties and so much more. Drum beat. While many musicological and historical studies have focused on the absorption of second line rhythm into jazz drumming styles, studies of the relationship between second line rhythm and the highly syncopated, groove-centered genre known as funk are a relatively recent development. Smith, Michael P. 1994. I did not have at my disposal any phrases in “The 2nd Line” that featured eighth notes throughout an entire measure. VHS. LP. Though Bolden met an early demise due to alcoholism and mental illness, his successors carried his ideas forward with the wide fluctuations of timing and accentuation later known in New Orleans as “between the cracks.”. Line,” perhaps reflecting the fact that funk rhythms are typically more controlled and regular than those of jazz. During a funeral second line, the hearse is moved from the funeral to the burial service, joined by guests. that have been adopted in a wide variety of American popular and jazz styles, and through my analysis of these features one basic point has become clear: Western musical notation is woefully unequipped to illustrate any feel or pulse aside from straight or triplet-shuffle rhythm. Payne, Jim. Foremost is the challenge of capturing the “between the cracks” feel of second line drumming, which is somewhere between shuffle (eighth- or sixteenth-note triplets) and “straight” rhythms. Formed out of an ordinance that restricted prostitution to a 37-block area south of Canal Street, the “barrelhouses and bordellos” of Storyville provided employment for some 200 musicians during its thirty-year existence. Note that although beats 2 and 4 are not both accented by the snare on each measure, the phrase begins on the 2 and ends on 4. This technique is called palm muting. On “Hey Pocky A-Way,” the drums establish a strong “on the one” feel through a bass drum and snare accent on every downbeat. Audible evidence suggested that the basic pattern would consist of alternating longer and shorter eighth notes. The vertical line in the middle of the figure indicates the bar division. No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans. Although tresillo literally means “triplet,” in practice it refers to the pattern of beats with a duration of 3-3-2 (in 4/4, two dotted quarter notes followed by a regular quarter note). A native of New Hampshire, Ben Doleac received his Master's degree in Ethnomusicology from the University of Alberta in 2011 and is currently pursuing a PhD in the same field at the University of California, Los Angeles. Early New Orleans jazz and the profusion of styles that resulted from it all employed variations on second line rhythm. This turned out to be the case both on “The 2nd Line” and on “Hey Pocky A-Way,” although the pattern broke down somewhat more neatly on the latter tune. Most of the development is rhythmic rather than harmonic/melodic, with each of the instruments interlocking in a composite rhythmic pattern. The Music of Africa. We produce professional, affordable, quality music and entertainment for events. In New Orleans, young musicians brought Brown’s innovations full circle by mixing funk with the local styles—second line brass band music, Mardi Gras Indian songs, and piano rumbas—from which it sprang. After measuring the durations of each eighth note of the first two measures, as shown in figure 11, I averaged the duration of the long and then the short eighth notes of each measure. Accurate show listings, local band profiles, music news, and more. A “between the cracks” rhythm, on the other hand, cannot be adequately notated whatsoever. ... Second line is a type of rhythm used in New Orleans jazz and blues music, or those who follow behind the musical members of a parade to enjoy the music. Like jump blues and most early rhythm and blues music, “The 2nd Line” is played “between the cracks,” with a duple march beat underlying layered syncopations based on an uneven eighth-note pulse. It would not be outrageous to claim that the musical traditions of New Orleans were the wellspring of twentieth-century popular music. 2010. Ethnomusicology Review  |  ISSN 2164-4578  |  © 2021 by Ethnomusicology Review. Walker, Daniel E. 2004. My analyses herein represent just a preliminary step in that direction; there are countless other instances across jazz and popular music genres where additive rhythms and a “between the cracks” rhythmic feel are deployed in different ways. Up From the Cradle of Jazz: New Orleans Music Since World War II. : P-Funk and the Politics of Signifyin(g),” addresses utopianism, rhetorical play and coded political commentary in the music and mythology of George Clinton and Parliament-Funkadelic. Earl King, "Street Parade" You may know blues guitarist King from his 1962 hit "Trick Bag," or from … Second line parades are the descendants of the city’s famous jazz funerals and, … As played by James Brown’s guitarist Jimmy Nolen, it was sometimes known as “chicken scratch.” Also characteristic of funk is the static harmony of “Hey Pocky A-Way”; although the piano plays brief two-note chords in the fifth and flat seventh of the key during the song’s introduction, there are no true chord changes in the section I have transcribed. New Birth'… read more. We are a musical family comprised of true friends and families that understand music, culture and performance both in the style of New Orleans and internationally as well. This shift opened up a space for New Orleans musicians to experiment further with the mixed feel of the second line. The fifth and seventh eighth notes are the longest in each measure, while the second and sixth are the shortest. While the Congo Square dances and black mutual-aid societies of the early nineteenth century provided the basic rhythmic, social, and spiritual framework for the later emergence of the second line parade, its instrumentation was adapted from the European-style brass marching bands that were popular across the country during the same era. As military bands were dissolved at the close of the Civil War, members began to hawk their instruments to the pawn shops on Rampart Street, and New Orleans was suddenly awash in inexpensive secondhand brass instruments (Lichtenstein and Danker 1993:21). This rhythm is articulated by a pattern of snare accents on the 1, the “and” after 2, and the 4, as shown in figure 8: Figure 8. “New Orleans Second Line Rhythms.” Percussive Notes 39:28-30. Explore our comprehensive Cincinnati music calendar. Listen free to Various Artists – New Orleans Second Line Mardi Gras Party (Mardi Gras In New Orleans, Carnival Time and more). Basic snare pattern, “The 2nd Line.” Transcribed by author. We can perform as background music or take over, center stage! You don’t have to be dead and/or famous to get a second line parade. Musical Gumbo: The Music of New Orleans. Marsalis Music 4600130. Eighth-note runs in “The 2nd Line,” measures 15 and 16. Folklore Films. So whether it's a soloist, duo, trio or as a big band, our musicians are cued up to go. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. Even the latter requires an artificial accommodation and is impractical to notate throughout a piece. Door Knob Films. Wynton Marsalis claims that it was Bolden who introduced the concept of the “Big Four,” a syncopation that represented the first departure from the standard march beat, freeing up the rhythm and providing a springboard for jazz improvisation to emerge. In contrast to the divisive rhythm typical of Western classical music, in which larger rhythmic units are divided equally, in additive rhythms the larger rhythmic or metrical unit is divided unequally. While the first measure of these two grooves is essentially identical, the piano and guitar diverge in the second measure, playing accents off of one another and creating something of a “call-and-response” effect. The slave codes of the Spanish colonial period, which lasted from 1763 to 1803, allowed blacks some freedom of movement and expression outside of their long working hours, permitted slaves to own property, and offered a legal path for slaves to purchase their freedom. The lyrics of a 12-bar blues typically feature an African-derived “call and response” structure, with the first eight bars containing a four-bar lyrical “call” on the I chord, a four-bar repetition of the call on the IV chord, and a four-bar “response” which begins on the V chord, passes through the IV and concludes on the I chord. Dictionary ! CDs & Vinyl Hello, Sign in. We can see that the durations of each eighth note remain fairly consistent between the two measures (the 4.2 cm duration of the first eighth note in measure 1 is very close to the 4.15 cm duration of the first eighth note in measure 2, for instance) but that, within each measure, the durations of the “long” and “short” eighth notes fluctuate somewhat. A typical second line parade features brass-and-percussion ensembles playing a syncopated march, accompanied by revelers who add chants, dances, and rhythms of their own. This shift opened up a space for New Orleans musicians to experiment furt… We are not a band booking agency or a company that hires outsourced characters. Our management team is creative and has experience working closely with clients throughout the planning process to make sure we are continuously in line with client expectations. New York: W.W. Norton. Over the course of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, black musicians in New Orleans developed a unique rhythmic syntax which underlies Crescent City jazz, rhythm and blues, and funk music. brezzy. In measure 15, the bass guitar settles into a standard staccato funk pattern that also emphasizes the One. The snare drummer, however, improvises march-style beats that often depart from the standard accents on the two and the four. Tresillo is also heard prominently in New Orleans second line music. I should also note that the transcription of the guitar groove indicates only the accent pattern, though in fact every eighth note is played. Berry, Jason, Jonathan Foose, and Tad Jones. Through the circuitous routes that black New Orleans musicians of the mid-twentieth century took around the country and across an ever-changing musical landscape, second line rhythms were adapted and absorbed into a variety of popular genres. Through the circuitous routes that black New Orleans musicians of the mid-twentieth century took around the country and across an ever-changing musical landscape, second line rhythms were adapted and absorbed into a variety of popular genres. We also offer New Orleans Jazz ensemble style and classic favorites too. The section of the performance that I have transcribed ends shortly before the entrance of a second piano line, so only one piano part is indicated on the staff. This sort of durational flexibility is an essential component of both second line rhythm and the principles of jazz timing that developed out of it. The above figure displays the durations of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh eighth notes in measure 15. Moore, Stanton. The first line is usually a brass band and the ones being honored, the newlyweds. Rebirth Brass Band new orleans Kermit Ruffins The Dirty Dozen Brass Band jazz A Clearing Al Hirt Antonio Carlos Jobim Bob Curnow's L.A. Big Band Buckshot LeFonque Cajun Dance Party Christian McBride Dave Holland Octet Dejan's Olympia Brass Band Dessa Dizzy Gillespie Dumpstaphunk Galactic Gnarls Barkley (London Jazz Festival 2010) … Occasionally, the melody of the response will conclude on the V chord after returning to the tonic, though that is not the case here. Find album reviews, stream songs, credits and award information for New Orleans Second Line! Meters, The. Download our mobile app now. Variants of the second line are an essential component of many of the city’s black expressive traditions, including jazz funerals, Mardi Gras Indian parades, and various street festival parades throughout the year. Jackson: The University of Mississippi Press. 2009. In order to capture exactly what “between the cracks” meant in each of my examples, however, I have supplemented each transcription with a spectrographic analysis of the recorded performance that explores the irregular timing of the underlying eighth-note pulse in greater detail (Figures 5 and 6). 2008. Harmonically, “The 2nd Line” is essentially a 12-bar blues. Check out New Orleans Second Line by New Birth Brass Band on Amazon Music. Many couples opt to add a grand marshal, an energetic local who heads the parade. 2001. Our professional musicians and performance artists are skilled, seasoned and among the best in the industry and know how to communicate as one - musically - and as artists. Music in New Orleans: The Formative Years 1791–1841. Second lines are our pride, joy, and what makes us unique. Unlike in either of these styles, however, the march feel is not consistently articulated by the combination of the bass and the snare. Menu. Some things, like acquiring police escort or a permit from the City of New Orleans, are not optional. in line with client expectations. Cuban son clave rhythm. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. The one minor departure from typical 12-bar form is bar 14, which submerges the typical IV chord in a four-chord turnaround that actually passes down through every chord in the key from V to II, touching the IV chord only before moving to the III chord and then to the II. By the 1780s several support societies (later known as “Social Aid and Pleasure Clubs”) had emerged among the city’s African-descended residents. The New Birth Brass Band are part of a long line in the New Orleans brass band tradition, but their relative youth means their music yields an eclectic set of … “Some people call it funk,” Millon replied, “but to us it’s strictly second line.” “Funk” has several different meanings in American popular discourse, but since the 1970s it has largely connoted a heavily syncopated, groove-centered style of African-American music. 1974. Organizing a second line is not hard, though it requires a few hundred dollars and some advance planning. user949601102. The instrumentation, then, is more typical of a small jazz group than a traditional New Orleans brass band. Where Stewart’s and Payne’s analyses typically focus on one instrument at a time, however, my intention herein is to illustrate the interaction of multiple instruments within a piece and the ways they articulate elements of second line rhythm both together and individually. As big-band swing evolved into jump blues, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll, shuffle rhythms began to decline in popularity and were largely replaced by a straight-eighths pulse (Stewart:297). Another dance performed in Congo Square, the bamboula, had an accompanying rhythm analogous to the Afro-Cuban clave. The New Birth Brass Band are part of a long line in the New Orleans brass band tradition, but their relative youth means their music yields an eclectic set of musical genres. Instead, I compared the durations in a run of four eighth notes in measure 15 and a three-eighth-note run in measure 16. My analyses herein represent just a preliminary step in that direction; there are countless other instances across jazz and popular music genres where additive rhythms and a “between the cracks” rhythmic feel are deployed in different ways. Even so, it took some manipulation to identify the particular points where notes changed. UCLA. European accounts of slave dances in the Americas date from as early as 1640, and when African-descended residents of New Orleans began gathering in Congo Square in the mid-1700s they performed the Calenda, a dance first observed in Martinique in 1694 (Smith 1994:77). In 1976, filmmaker Maurice Martinez asked Mardi Gras Indian Chief Jake Millon to describe the characteristic rhythm that underlies the music of black New Orleans. Stream ad-free or purchase CD's and MP3s now on Amazon.com. However, because it is in fact between triplet and straight rhythm it is possible, for example, for the funk bass line of measure 15 to feel like straight eighths against the shuffle of the drums without either element seeming out of phase. No event is too small or too big. 2006. Derived from West African festival culture, such performances were to prove formative to black New Orleans culture in their blending of the sacred and secular, their incorporation of “African dance, dress, song, music, and instrumentation,” and their frequent use of processions and masquerades (Walker 2004:4). The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999. They arrived as scheduled and the parade went on without a hitch. New Orleans Second line Music Mardi Gras Brass Band. It is the tension between the straight fourths of the tambourine and the uneven eighth-note subdivisions characterizing the other instrumental lines that make this performance a classic example of second line rhythm. |, It would not be outrageous to claim that the musical traditions of New Orleans were the wellspring of twentieth-century popular music. The artist, Henry Lipkis, with contributions from Ceaux Young, Jessica Strahan, and Devin Reynolds, depicts several recognizable members of the cultural community. After some deliberation, I opted to follow this procedure in both of my transcriptions (see below for a more detailed explanation of how I determined the degree of this “between the cracks” swing). Gretna, LA: Pelican. The Band assisted with the necessary City Permits and Escorts, which save us a lot of time and headache. 1996. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. While the former was a native of the city who followed second lines and worked with Professor Longhair as a teenager, the latter hailed from Tampa. Check out Second Line by New Orleans Heritage Hall Jazz Band on Amazon Music. Chicago: Lawrence Hill. We methodically combine factors of the event: theme, style, venue,  performance, target audience and produce a noteworthy lineup of music that compliments the events narrative, and delivers an entertainment experience with elegance and style. Both worked for “Godfather of Soul” James Brown in the early 1960s, and the rhythmic principles they introduced to the band would have a profound impact on Brown’s groundbreaking later work. Lichtenstein, Grace and Laura Danker. In New Orleans African-American Creole culture, Second Lines are the community event of … Hinton, James and Maurice Martinez. Our approach is not routine or lacking in individuality. Athens: University of Georgia Press. I undertook a spectrographic analysis of the recording’s wave form for just this purpose. With a high density of musical events making it difficult to pick out the points where notes changed by sight alone, I slowed down the recording by half and began a painstaking process of playing back brief sections and attempting to split the clip at the exact instant where a note changed. The Marsalis Family’s “The 2nd Line” was recorded in concert for a CD entitled Music Redeems, released in 2010 to benefit the Ellis Marsalis Center for Music. Second Line (Joe Avery Blues) Traditional Arr. New orleans second line mix by MrDjko// Culturally Distinct Podcast published on 2015-07-10T02:39:23Z. The accented notes are played in a staccato, partially muted style typical in funk, while the other beats, notated as rests in my transcription, are played with the strings fully muted so that only the rhythm of the strumming is heard. 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