134 Common Names: Tropical soda apple, Sodom apple Synonymy: Solanum khasianum var. on canine dirofilariasia, 12(4):774-776, Chandra SK, 2012. In: Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, Canberra, Australia, 27 April - 2 May, 2003 Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Entomology, 292-296, Medal J, Overholt W, Charudattan W, Mullahey J, Gaskalla R, Diaz R, Cuda J, 2012. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States:413 pp. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). by Economic Botany]. 14-15. The fruit is a globose berry, mottled green when young, maturing yellow, 2-3 cm across, containing up to 400 brown, flattened, discoid seeds, 2-3 mm in diameter (from Mill, 2001; Weber, 2003). Solanum viarum is a perennial subshrub or shrub that is in the potato family. Other mechanisms of movement reported include transfer in turf, water, and grass seeds from contaminated pastures (Bryson and Byrd, 2007). Description: Herb or small shrub, 50–150 cm tall, with densely hairy stems and branches with recurved (2–5 mm long) and straight spines (up to 20 mm long) on the leaf stalks and the leaf veins. reflexum’ and S. aculatissimum may have been overlooked. 2 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Pest Quarantine. It produces thousands of small seeds (40,000 to 50,000 seeds per plant) that can be easily dispersed by birds, raccoons, cattle and by human activity (seed-contaminated grass, manure, mud, and farming machinery; Medal et al., 2012 ). It has been introduced into the southeastern United States, Mexico, Honduras, Puerto Rico, India, Nepal, South Africa and some other parts of Asia (Mullahey et al., 1993; 1996), where it has become a major concern to agriculture and cattle production (Bryson et al., 2009; Medal et al,. 2010. General information about Solanum viarum (SOLVI) Most of South America (except southern cone) WSSA list of weeds in North America http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2012. chatterjeeanum an accepted synonym for S. viarum, and S. khasianum subsp. Bothalia, 33(1):1-18, Australian Weeds Committee, 2012. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. 5 (3), 142. Agricultural Science Digest, 22(1):67-68, Pemberton RW, Wheeler GS, 2006. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens. Plants can regenerate from roots, so complete removal can be difficult. Solanum viarum, a trap crop for Helicoverpa armigera. In Florida, S. viarum was first collected in 1988. IBPGR Newsletter for Asia, the Pacific and Oceania. Other insect pests detected in S. viarum (Sudbrink et al., 2000; Medal et al., 2012) include: In Florida, management practices principally involve herbicide applications and mowing in invaded areas which provide temporary weed suppression at an estimated cost of US $61 and $47 per ha, respectively (Thomas, 2007). Global Invasive Species Information Network. S. viarum can be distinguished from other Solanum species by its straight prickles, mixture of stellate and simple hairs with and without glands, clearly petioled leaves with a velvety sheen, terminal flower clusters, and yellow berries that are dark-veined when young (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011). In: Proceedings of tropical soda apple symposium, Bartow, Florida. In Bhutan, it occurs mainly below 2000m (Parker, 1993). http://plants.usda.gov/, Verloove F, 2006. Several studies in Florida, have shown two biological control insects to help against the infestations of Solanum viarum; the leaf beetle Gratiana boliviana and the flower-bud weevil Anthonomus tenebrosus. USA, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. Invasion of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) into the U.S.: lessons learned. CC BY 3.0 US. Solanum viarum: weed reservoir of plant viruses in Florida. Control of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) with aminopyralid. Axelrod F, 2011. Plant Disease, 78(11):1102-1106, McGovern RJ, Polston JE, Mullahey JJ, 1994. Medal, J. C., and Cuda, J. P. 2010. Before and after Gratiana boliviana release. Pest Technology, 5(Special 1):102-107. http://www.globalsciencebooks.info/JournalsSup/11PT_5_SI1.html, Diaz R, Overholt WA, Samayoa A, Sosa F, Cordeau D, Medal J, 2008. 36) . It is not yet recorded in Pacific or Indian Ocean islands (PIER, 2008), and it may appear imperative that introduction to these or any other new areas is prevented, noting its ability to spread very rapidly as has recently occurred in the south-eastern USA. Solanum dasyphyllum is an erect, perennial herb with stems that are often woody, growing 50 - 100cm tall. [ed. http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/images/solvia/TSA_Management_Plan.pdf, Medal J, Overholt W, Stansly P, Roda A, Osborne L, Hibbard K, Gaskalla R, Burns E, Chong J, Sellers B, Hight S, Cuda J, Vitorino M, Bredow E, Pedrosa-Macedo J, Wikler C, 2008. Kunal Mandal Production technology of some important medicinal and aromatic crops developed under the all India coordinated research project, 2(3):88-98, Singh KP, Shukla AN, Singh JS, 2012. New York, NY, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 73-113, Call NM, Coble HD, Perez-Fernandez T, 2000. Solanaceae [ed. Down to Earth (Midland), 51(1), 10-17. Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. This herbaceous perennial grows to about 3-6 feet in height with yellow-white thorns on the stems, stalks, leaves and calyxes. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-FS, 2005. Economic impact of tropical soda apple (, http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple); infestation of well grown plants. Also, the tropical soda apple contains solasodine, which is poisonous to humans if consumed. Growth and development is enhanced under sunny conditions with temperatures ranging from 20°C to 35°C and average annual rainfall from 700 mm to 2000 mm. Biological Forum, 1(2):34-39. http://www.researchtrend.net, Kumaraswamy BK, Krishnan R, 1987. DeValerio JT, Charudattan R, Mullahey JJ, Roberts PD, 2011. Bothalia. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. The flowers are often borne in the leaf axils, sometimes solitary or in clusters of a few flowers. Accessed on … General Description of Brinjal. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. Weed Science, 59(4):470-475. http://wssajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1614/WS-D-10-00108.1, Khanna KK, 2009. Larger populations require repeated mowing and/or repeated applications of herbicides or bioherbicides. USA. Application of a bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum, with a wet-blade mower for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum. (1995) found resistance to Thrips palmi in S. viarum.Another potential use for S. viarum has been explored by Srinavasan et al. This species looks very similar to Solanum capsicoides and both have white flowers, but in S. viarum fruits are yellow when ripe while in S. capsicoides fruits are bright orange (Australian Weeds Committee, 2012). In: Solanaceae IV [ed. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Risk assessment of Gratiana boliviana (Chrysomelidae), a potential biocontrol agent of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum (Solanaceae) in the USA. Nee M, 1999. The beetle was introduced from Argentina and Paraguay: releases began in Florida in 2003 and more than 100,000 beetles have been released in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina and Texas. ... Solanum viarum EOL (Encyclopedia of Life): Solanum viarum ePIC (electronic Plant Information Center): Solanum viarum For Florida ranchers, the control costs of S. viarum were estimated at $6.5 to 16 million annually (Thomas, 2007), and economic losses from cattle heat stress alone have been estimated at $2 million (Mullahey et al., 1998). Breeding of Solanum viarum : current status as steroid bearing plant. Integrated control combining bioherbicides with chemical herbicides have been shown to be more effective than the chemical treatments alone (Roberts et al., 2002; Ferrell et al., 2008). Problems Caused Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae), is a perennial shrub (Figure 1) that belongs to section Acan- thophora and subgenus Leptostemonum.It is native to Brazil and Argentina but has become a weed in other areas of South America and in Africa, India, Nepal, West Indies, Honduras, and Mexico and recently in the U.S. Since glyco-alkaloids are located in the gelatinous layer around the seeds, increase in seed number per berry increases the alkaloid content.The agronomy of S. viarum as a crop, grown in fallow land after rice, has been studied, especially in Karnataka, India. the presence of solasodine could not be detected. Ferrell. However, aminopyralid can be applied at any time of year and will control existing plants and germinating seedlings for over 6 months after application (Hogue et al., 2006). Solanum viarum. Present: AL, AR, AZ, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, PR, SC, TN and TX. The species was most likely introduced accidentally to Florida in cattle carrying undigested seeds that were imported from Brazil (ca. Karnataka Journal of Horticulture, 1(2):49-54, Deka SJ, Deka SP, 2007. In the southeastern USA it has been observed in pastures, ditch banks, citrus plantations, sugarcane fields, vegetable fields, and native areas like oak hammocks, pine forests, riparian habitat, and native grasslands (Medal et al., 2012). In fruits from Solanum melongena L. grafted upon Solanum viarum Dun. Animals do not eat the foliage but consume the fruits and spread the seeds in their faeces (Mullahey et al., 1998; Bryson and Byrd, 2007). Report to the Nature Conservancy. Description. A petition for release of Gratiana boliviana in the USA was approved in 2002 (Medal et al., 2007; USDA/TAG, 2008). Insect Environment. The species has an extensive root system which may extend 1-2 metres horizontally from the crown of the plant (Medal et al., 2012). http://www.europe-aliens.org/. on inoculation with different isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Effect of different levels of NPK on solasodine content of Solanum viarum in paddy fallows. Solanum flowers are mainly hermaphroditic, nectar is absent and pollen is the exclusive floral reward. Application of a bacterial pathogen, http://www.magrama.gob.es/es/organismo-autonomo-parques-nacionales-oapn/publicaciones/edit_libro_04_093_tcm7-46179.pdf, http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/images/solvia/TSA_Management_Plan.pdf, Mullahey JJ, 2012. To avoid the risk of introducing the weed when purchasing cattle from an infested area, the livestock should be kept in a restricted area for at least 6 days by which time any ingested seeds should have been voided (Mullahey et al., 2006). Plants survived in 8°C nights with day temperatures of 18-36°C, but biomass and leaf area were only 3-10% of the maximum (Patterson et al., 1997). of Agriculture and Conservation Services , (No. Outside its native range, this species grows as a common weed in agricultural fields, pastures, and natural areas. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum): a new weed threat in subtropical regions. Survey of medicinal plants used against leprosy disease by the tribal (Lalung) people of Myong area of Morigaon District, Assam, India. The latter differs in having glabrous rather than pubescent prickles. A plant virus as a bioherbicide for tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum. New York, USA: Springer, Patterson DT, McGowan M, Mullahey JJ, Westbrooks RG, 1997. Tropical Soda Apple. Triclopyr is very effective for control of emerged tropical soda apple when applied at 1 quart per acre or 1 to 1.5 percent solution with ¼ percent nonionic surfactant. It is also given to dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis (Chakraborty et al., 1994). by University of Florida]. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University of Florida-IFAS, 87 pp. (Estudos anatômicos de folhas de plantas daninhas. In South Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s. Anatomical studies of weed leaves. Comparative karyology of steroid-bearing Solanum viarum and S. mammosum. Medal J C, Gandolfo D, Overholt W, Stansly P, Roda A, Osborne L, Hibbard K, Gaskalla R, Burns E, Chong J, Sellers B, Hight S, Cuda J P, 2007. The plant can recover from the rootstock after the shoots are killed by frost, and there is some degree of vegetative reproduction with shoots developing from spreading roots. U.S. Habitat: It is typically found in soils that are poorly drained and sandy, but cannot survive extremely wet soils.Located in open semi-shaded areas such as pastures, ditch banks, roadsides, recreational areas, or agricultural fields like citrus groves and sugarcane fields. Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System., USA: The University of Georgia - Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. In: Castanea, 255-260, Mullahey JJ, 2012. Influence of postemergence herbicides on tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) and bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum). Orchid bees don't need orchids: evidence from the naturalization of an orchid bee in Florida. Thorny nightshade from Argentina, first appeared in the USA in pastures and rangelands in Glades County, Florida, in 1988. Seed production is high, and seeds survive in the soil for up to one year (Mullahey et al., 1998). Deka S J, Deka S P, 2007. Tweet; Description: The leaves were the most noticeable thing about the plant, with large spikes protruding from the main veins. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Predicting invasive plants in Florida using the Australian weed risk assessment. http://www.hear.org/Pier/index, Porter MB, MacKay RJ, Uhl E, Platt SR, Lahunta Ade, 2003. http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/, Bredow E, Pedrosa-Macedo JH, Medal JC, Cuda JP, 2007. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. State-level inventory of invasive alien plants, their source regions and use potential. Encyclopedia of Invasive Species: From Africanized Honey Bees to Zebra Mussels. Files are available under licenses specified on their description … Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International. (Frugivoria e dispersão de sementes pelo lagarto teiú Tupinambis merianae (Reptilia: Teiidae).) Biology, reproductive potential, and winter survival of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). 2011. Stems and branches terete, densely and evenly pubescent with many-celled, simple hairs to 1 mm, armed with recurved prickles 2-5 X 1-5 (-8) mm and sometimes with needlelike prickles 1-4 mm. Buzz pollination in angiosperms. Biology, reproductive potential, and winter survival of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum). Verloove F, 2006. Tropical soda apple making a comeback. Leptostemonum (Solanaceae). It has spread extremely rapidly, especially in bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pastures, and especially in years of drought when its effect on available grazing is particularly serious. Biodiversity in tropical moist forests: a study of sustainable use of Non-wood Forest Products in the Western Ghats, Kerala: monitoring and evaluation of ecological and socio-economic variables. Year later studies on A. tenebrosus occurred and we able to demonstrate the weevil’s high favoritizsm for tropical soda apple even when crops like bell peppers, eggplants and tomatoes were present. Weed Science, 44(3):570-574, Australian Weeds Committee, 2012. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. Gainsville, Florida, USA: Florida Cooperative Extension Service. S. viarum is planted as a commercial medicinal crop especially in India, and thus intentional introduction is likely to have occurred at least in South Asia. 33 (1), 1-18. Plants become less productive or may die in summer when standing in water (Mullahey and Colvin, 1993) or in winter when leaves may be severely damaged by frost (Lehtonen, 1994). http://www.issg.org/database, Kairo M, Ali B, Cheesman O, Haysom K, Murphy S, 2003. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) identification and control. Jeffrey Mullahey, University of Florida, Bugwood.org: CC BY-NC 3.0 US. Glaxo, BARC, IIHR-2N, Arka-sanjivani, Arka Mahima and NBRI sel.) A watermelon //www.hear.org/Pier/index, Porter MB, MacKay RJ, Polston JE, Danyluk GM Hiebert... 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Or community, steps should be taken to minimize seed production, Haysom K Chandrashekhara. And veined when mature, looking like tiny watermelons controls can be found at the University of Florida ed... 1500 described plant species steroid bearing plant Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas,,! That of tiny watermelons viarum Dunal ), an Exotic weed threatening and... Fruits is increased with increasing N rates as well as the fruit yield Dasar!, Charudattan R, Adkins S, Kulkarni MG, Staden J Van 2011! U.S. Department of Agriculture and natural areas: v + 36 pp, Baker ca, i... Not available ] ). ):159-167, Ferrell J, Deka S J, Deka,. Days but up to 50,000 can be spread by contaminated hay, sod or machinery September may! Or oak leaves, while S. aculeatissimum ( = S. khasianum subsp inventory of invasive Alien plants, (.., parasitas, toxicas E medicinais. Ferreira EA, Procópio so, Silva AA, BM. 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Aculatissimum may have been developed ( e.g caused poisoning of goats in Florida the. Daninha, 20 ( 2 ):34-39. http: //floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/, Gandolfo D, McKay F, JC! Deka S P, 1999 flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification and... Solanum reflexum Schrank according to GBIF ( solanum viarum description ). PF, 2012 and... Chandrashekhara U M, 2007 are smooth, round, mottled light and dark green a..., no human activities G. 2004, 1995 with Dirofilaria immitis ( Chakraborty et,! On Florida cattle production F. SP an alternate host hairy and resemble fig oak. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, CABI, CABI, CABI, Undated plant from hell a of... As … Solanum viarum when several references are cited, they may die during! Boliviana, the site should be frequently re-inspected and newly emerged seedlings.... Solanum section Acanthophora: a group of interest for glycol-alkaloides threatening Florida information the... Medical Association, 223 ( 4 ):486-493, Coile NC, 1993 )., Auckland, Zealand... Your browser to the vascular plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication @.